Diseases & conditions A-Z List
Diseases & Conditions A-Z List - «A»:
Acute HIV infection
Acute HIV infection is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a virus that gradually destroys the immune system.
Primary or acute HIV infection occurs 2 - 4 weeks after infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The virus is spread by:
Acute kidney failure
Acute (sudden) kidney failure is the sudden loss of the ability of the kidneys to remove waste and concentrate urine without losing electrolytes.
There are many possible causes of kidney damage. They include:
Acute tubular necrosis (ATN)
Autoimmune kidney disease, including:
Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)
Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is a fast-growing cancer in which the body produces a large number of immature white blood cells (lymphocytes). These cells are found in the blood, bone marrow, lymph nodes, spleen, and other organs.
ALL makes up 80% of childhood acute leukemias. Most cases o...
Acute mountain sickness
Acute mountain sickness is an illness that can affect mountain climbers, hikers, skiers, or travelers at high altitude (typically above 8,000 feet or 2,400 meters).
Acute mountain sickness is brought on by the combination of reduced air pressure and lower oxygen concentration that occur at h...
Acute myeloid leukemia
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is cancer that starts inside bone marrow, the soft tissue inside bones that helps form blood cells. The cancer grows from cells that would normally turn into white blood cells.
Acute means the disease develops quickly.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)
Acute nephritic syndrome
Acute nephritic syndrome is a group of disorders that cause swelling or inflammation of the internal kidney structures (specifically, the glomeruli).
Nephritic syndrome is a type of glomerulonephritis.
Acute nephritic syndrome is often caused by an immune response that is triggered by an inf...
Acute pancreatitis is sudden swelling and inflammation of the pancreas.
The pancreas is an organ located behind the stomach that produces chemicals called enzymes, as well as the hormones insulin and glucagon. Most of the time, the enzymes are only active after they reach the small intestine...
Acute respiratory distress syndrome
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening lung condition that prevents enough oxygen from getting into the blood.
See also: Infant respiratory distress syndrome
ARDS can be caused by any major swelling (inflammation) or injury to the lung. Some common causes include:
Acute tubular necrosis
Acute tubular necrosis is a kidney disorder involving damage to the tubule cells of the kidneys, resulting in acute kidney failure.
Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) is caused by lack of oxygen to the kidney tissues (ischemia of the kidneys).
The internal structures of the kidney, particularly th...
Acute unilateral obstructive uropathy
Acute unilateral is a sudden blockage in one of the tubes (ureters) that drain urine from the kidneys.
Acute bilateral obstructive uropathy
Chronic unilateral obstructive uropathy
Chronic bilateral obstructive uropathy
Unilateral obstructive uropathy ...
Acute upper airway obstruction
An acute upper airway obstruction is a blockage of the upper airway, which can be in the trachea, voice box (laryngeal), or throat (pharyngeal) areas.
Causes of acute upper airway obstruction include:
Allergic reactions in which the trachea or throat swell closed, including allergic reacti...
Addison's disease is a disorder that occurs when the adrenal glands do not produce enough of their hormones.
The adrenal glands are small hormone-secreting organs located on top of each kidney. They consist of the outer portion (called the cortex) and the inner portion (called the medulla).
Adenoid removal is surgery to take out the adenoid glands. These glands are located between the airway you breathe into through your nose and the back of your throat. Often, adenoid removal is done at the same time as a tonsillectomy, surgery to remove the tonsils. Adenoid removal is also called ade...
Adenomyosis is uterine thickening that occurs when endometrial tissue, which normally lines the uterus, moves into the outer muscular walls of the uterus.
The cause is unknown. Sometimes adenomyosis may cause a mass or growth within the uterus, which is called an adenomyoma.
The disease usua...
ADH is a test that measures the amount of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in blood. ADH is found in the body, and it may be given as a medication.
How the Test is Performed
Blood is typically drawn from a vein, usually from the inside of the elbow or the back of the hand. The site is cleaned with germ-k...