Diseases & conditions A-Z List
Diseases & Conditions A-Z List - «F»:
Fragile X syndrome
Fragile X syndrome is a genetic condition involving changes in part of the X chromosome. It is the most common form of inherited mental retardation in males and a significant cause of mental retardation in females.
Fragile X syndrome is caused by a change in the FMR1 gene. A small section of...
Frequent or urgent urination
Frequent urination means needing to urinate more often than usual. Urgent urination is a sudden, compelling urge to urinate, along with discomfort in your bladder.
A frequent need to urinate at night is called nocturia. Most people can sleep for 6 to 8 hours without having to urinate. Middle aged an...
Friedreich's ataxia is a rare disease passed down through families (inherited) that affects the muscles and heart.
Friedreich's ataxia is caused by a defect in a gene called Frataxin (FXN), which is located on chromosome 9. Changes in this gene cause the body to produce too much of part of D...
Frontal bossing is an unusually prominent forehead, sometimes associated with a heavier than normal brow ridge.
Frontal bossing is seen only in a few rare syndromes, including acromegaly, a chronic disorder caused by too much growth hormone, which leads to enlargement of the bones of...
Frostbite is damage to the skin and underlying tissues caused by extreme cold.
A person with frostbite on the extremities may also be subject to hypothermia (lowered body temperature). Check for hypothermia and treat those symptoms first.
Frostbite is distinguishable by the hard, pal...
Frozen shoulder is when the shoulder is painful and cannot move normally because of inflammation.
The joint capsule of the shoulder joint has ligaments that hold the shoulder bones to each other. When the capsule becomes inflamed, the shoulder bones are unable to move freely in the joint.
FSH stands for follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). This hormone is released by the anterior pituitary gland.
In women, FSH stimulates production of eggs and a hormone called estradiol during the first half of the menstrual cycle.
In men, FSH stimulates production of sperm.
This article discusses the...
Fuchs' (pronounced Fooks) dystrophy is an eye disease in which cells lining the inner surface of the cornea slowly start to die off. The disease usually affects both eyes.
Fuchs' dystrophy can be inherited, which means it can be passed down from parents to children. In some families, it is i...
Fungal arthritis is infection of a joint by a fungus.
Fungal arthritis, also called mycotic arthritis, is a very rare condition. It can be caused by any of the invasive types of fungi. These organisms may affect bone or joint tissue. One or more joints may be affected, most often the large, ...
Fungal nail infection
Fungal nail infection is an infection of the nails by a fungus.
The body normally hosts a variety of bacteria and fungi. Some of these are useful to the body. Others may multiply rapidly and form infections. Fungi can live on the dead tissues of the hair, nails, and outer skin layers.
Funnel-web spider bite
This article describes the effects of a bite from the funnel-web spider. Male funnel-web spiders are more poisonous than females.
This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency nu...
A furuncle (boil) is a skin infection involving an entire hair follicle and nearby skin tissue.
See also: Carbunculosis
Furuncles are very common. Furuncles are generally caused by Staphylococcus aureus, but they may be caused by other bacteria or fungi found on the skin's surface. Damage t...
Fusion of the ear bones
Fusion of the ear bones is the joining of the bones of the inner ear -- the incus, malleus, and stapes bones.
Fusion may be caused by:
Birth (congenital) defect
Fusion of the bones leads to hearing loss, because the bones are not moving and vibrating in reaction t...