Pelvic inflammatory disease is a general term for infection of the uterus lining, fallopian tubes, or ovaries.
See also: Endometritis
Most cases of pelvic inflammatory disease are caused by bacteria that move from the vagina or cervix into the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, or pelvis.
The most common cause of PID is sexual contact without using a condom or other protection. This is called a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Chlamydia and gonorrhea are the two bacteria that cause most cases of PID.
However, bacteria may also enter the body during some surgical or office procedures, such as:
In the United States, nearly 1 million women develop PID each year. About 1 in 8 sexually active adolescent girls will develop PID before age 20.
Risk factors include:
The most common symptoms of PID include:
Other symptoms that may occur with PID:
Note: There may be no symptoms. People who experience an ectopic pregnancy or infertility often have had silent PID, which is usually caused by chlamydia infection.
You may have a fever and abdominal tenderness. A pelvic examination may show:
Lab tests that look for signs of infection are:
Other tests include:
Your doctor will often start you on antibiotics while waiting for your test results.
If you are diagnosed with milder PID, you will usually be given an antibiotic injection or shot, and then sent home with antibiotic pills to take for up to 2 weeks. You will need to closely follow up with your health care provider.
More severe cases of PID may require you to stay in the hospital. Antibiotics are first given by IV, and then later by mouth. Which antibiotic is used depends on the type of infection.
A number of different antibiotics may be used for treating this type of infection. Some are safe in pregnant women. See gonorrhea or chlamydia for specific treatment recommendations.
Sexual partners must be treated to prevent passing the infection back and forth. You and your partner must finish all of the antibiotics. Use condoms until you both have finished taking your antibiotics.
Complicated cases that do not improve with antibiotics may need surgery.
PID infections can cause scarring of the pelvic organs, possibly leading to:
Call your health care provider if:
Preventive measures include:
You can reduce the risk of PID by getting regular STD screening exams. Couples can be tested for STDs before starting to have sex. Testing can detect STDs that may not be producing symptoms yet.
All sexually active women ages 20 - 25 and younger should be screened each year for chlamydia and gonorrhea. All women with new sexual partners or multiple partners should also be screened.
PID; Oophoritis; Salpingitis; Salpingo-oophoritis; Salpingo-peritonitis