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Diseases reference index «Serum hemoglobin »

Serum hemoglobin is a test that measures the level of free hemoglobin in the liquid part of the blood (the serum). Free hemoglobin is the hemoglobin outside of the red blood cells. Most of the hemoglobin is found inside the red blood cells, not in the serum.

How the Test is Performed

Blood is typically drawn from a vein, usually from the inside of the elbow or the back of the hand. The site is cleaned with germ-killing medicine (antiseptic). The health care provider wraps an elastic band around the upper arm to apply pressure to the area and make the vein swell with blood.

Next, the health care provider gently inserts a needle into the vein. The blood collects into an airtight vial or tube attached to the needle. The elastic band is removed from your arm. Once the blood has been collected, the needle is removed, and the puncture site is covered to stop any bleeding.

In infants or young children, a sharp tool called a lancet may be used to puncture the skin and make it bleed. The blood collects into a small glass tube called a pipette, or onto a slide or test strip. A bandage may be placed over the area if there is any bleeding.

How to Prepare for the Test

No preparation is necessary.

How the Test Will Feel

When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain, while others feel only a prick or stinging sensation. Afterward, there may be some throbbing.

Why the Test is Performed

Hemoglobin (Hb) (the main component of red blood cells) is a protein that carries oxygen away from the lungs to the body tissues. This test is done to diagnose or monitor the severity of various kinds of hemolytic anemia -- a low red blood cell count caused by the abnormal breakdown of red blood cells.

Normal Results

  • Females 12.3–15.3 g/dL
  • Males 14.0–17.5 g/dL

Note: g/dL = grams per deciliter

What Abnormal Results Mean

Elevated levels may indicate:

  • Drug-induced immune hemolytic anemia
  • G6PD deficiency
  • Hemoglobin C disease
  • Hereditary spherocytosis
  • Idiopathic autoimmune hemolytic anemia
  • Paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria (PCH)
  • Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH)
  • Sickle cell anemia
  • Thalassemia
  • Transfusion reaction

Risks

Veins and arteries vary in size from one patient to another and from one side of the body to the other. Obtaining a blood sample from some people may be more difficult than from others.

Other risks associated with having blood drawn are slight but may include:

  • Excessive bleeding
  • Fainting or feeling light-headed
  • Hematoma (blood accumulating under the skin)
  • Infection (a slight risk any time the skin is broken)

Alternative Names

Blood hemoglobin; Serum hemoglobin

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