HLA-B27 is a blood test to look for specific protein found on the surface of white blood cells. The protein is called human leukocyte antigen B27 (HLA-B27).
Human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) are proteins that help the bodyÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s immune system tell the difference between its own cells and foreign, harmful substances.
See also: Histocompatibility antigen test
Blood is drawn from a vein, usually from the inside of the elbow or the back of the hand. The puncture site is cleaned with antiseptic. An elastic band is placed around the upper arm to apply pressure and cause the vein to swell with blood.
A needle is inserted into the vein, and the blood is collected in an air-tight vial or a syringe. During the procedure, the band is removed to restore circulation. Once the blood has been collected, the needle is removed, and the puncture site is covered to stop any bleeding.
In infants or young children:
The area is cleansed with antiseptic and punctured with a sharp needle or a lancet. The blood may be collected in a pipette (small glass tube), on a slide, onto a test strip, or into a small container. A bandage may be applied to the puncture site if there is any bleeding.
No special preparation is usually necessary.
When the needle is inserted to draw blood, you may feel moderate pain, or only a prick or stinging sensation. Afterward, there may be some throbbing.
Your doctor may order this test if you have joint pain, stiffness, or swelling. HLA type B27 is associated with autoimmune diseases such as ankylosing spondylitis and Reiter syndrome. The test may be done along with other tests, including an ESR, C-reactive protein, and rheumatoid factor.
HLA antigen testing is also used to match donated tissue to organ recipients. For example, it may be done when a person needs a kidney transplant or bone marrow transplant.
A normal (negative) result means HLA-B27 is absent.
However, HLA-B27 is found in 5 - 7% of Caucasians who do not have an autoimmune disorder.
A positive test means HLA-B27 is present. It suggests a greater-than-average risk for developing:
In the presence of suggestive clinical findings, a positive HLA-B27 test may confirm the diagnosis.
Veins and arteries vary in size from one patient to another and from one side of the body to the other. Obtaining a blood sample from some people may be more difficult than from others.
Other risks associated with having blood drawn are slight but may include:
Human leukocyte antigen B27