Atherosclerosis is a condition in which fatty material collects along the walls of arteries. This fatty material thickens, hardens (forms calcium deposits), and may eventually block the arteries.
Atherosclerosis is a type of arteriosclerosis. The two terms are often used to mean the same thing.
Atherosclerosis is a common disorder that specifically affects the medium and large arteries. It occurs when fat, cholesterol, and other substances build up in the walls of arteries and form hard structures called plaques.
Eventually, the plaques can make the artery narrow and less flexible, making it harder for blood to flow. If the coronary arteries become narrow, blood flow to the heart can slow down or stop. This can cause chest pain (stable angina), shortness of breath, heart attack, and other symptoms.
Pieces of plaque can break off and move through the affected artery to smaller blood vessels, blocking them and causing tissue damage or death (embolization). This is a common cause of heart attack and stroke. Blood clots can also form around a tear (fissure) in the plaque leading to blocked blood flow. If the clot moves into an artery in the heart, lungs, or brain, it can cause a stroke, heart attack, or pulmonary embolism. In some cases, the atherosclerotic plaque is associated with a weakening of the wall of an artery leading to an aneurysm.
Risk factors for atherosclerosis include:
Atherosclerosis can affect many different organ systems, including the heart, lungs, brain, intestines, kidneys, and limbs (extremities).
Symptoms usually do not occur until blood flow becomes restricted or blocked.
See the specific condition for more details on symptoms:
A health care provider will perform a physical exam and listen to the heart and lungs with a stethoscope. Atherosclerosis can create a whooshing or blowing sound ("bruit") over an artery.
Tests that may be used to diagnose atherosclerosis or its complications include:
To help prevent atherosclerosis or its complications (such as heart disease and stroke), make the following lifestyle changes:
Get your blood pressure checked every 1 - 2 years, especially if high blood pressure runs in your family. Have your blood pressure checked more often if you have high blood pressure, heart disease, or you have had a stroke. Talk to your doctor about how often you should have yours checked. Specific recommendations depend on your age and blood pressure readings.
Have your cholesterol checked and treated if it is high.
See: High cholesterol and triglycerides
Your doctor may suggest taking aspirin or another drug called clopidogrel (Plavix) to help prevent blood clots from forming in your arteries. These medicines are called antiplatelet drugs. DO NOT take aspirin without first talking to your doctor.
Talk to your doctor about the safety of hormone replacement therapy for menopause.
Guidelines no longer recommend vitamins E or C, antioxidants, or folic acid to prevent heart disease.
A number of surgeries are performed to help prevent the complications of atherosclerosis. Some of these are:
Everyone starts to develop some amount of atherosclerosis as they grow older. In some people, the condition can cause complications such as a heart attack or stroke.
Call for an appointment with your health care provider if you are at risk for atherosclerosis, especially if you have symptoms.
Talk to your doctor before starting a new exercise plan, especially if you have been diagnosed with coronary heart disease or you have ever had a heart attack.
Arteriosclerosis; Hardening of the arteries; Plaque buildup - arteries