Trade Names:Guanfacine Hydrochloride- Tablets 1 mg- Tablets 2 mg
Trade Names:Intuniv- Tablets, ER 1 mg- Tablets, ER 2 mg- Tablets, ER 3 mg- Tablets, ER 4 mg
Trade Names:Tenex- Tablets 1 mg- Tablets 2 mg
Appears to stimulate central alpha-2 adrenergic receptors, with decreased sympathetic outflow causing a decrease in peripheral vascular resistance and reduction in heart rate. The mechanism of action in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is unknown.
Absolute bioavailability is approximately 80%. T max is 1 to 4 h for immediate-release (IR) and 4 to 8 h for ER.
Protein binding is approximately 70%. Mean Vd is 6.3 L/kg.
Half-life is 10 to 30 h for IR and 18 h for ER. Approximately 50% is excreted unchanged in the urine, the remainder as metabolites.
Cl is reduced; plasma levels are only slightly increased.Children
Exposure to guanfacine was higher in children (6 to 12 yr of age) compared with adolescents (13 to 17 yr of age).
Treatment of hypertension (IR only); treatment of ADHD (ER only).
Amelioration of heroin withdrawal symptoms; Tourette syndrome.
PO 1 mg daily initially. Adjust in increments of no more than 1 mg/wk. Maintenance dosage of 1 to 4 mg/day. Max, 4 mg/day.Hypertension (IR only)Adults (12 yr of age and older)
PO 1 mg daily at bedtime alone or in combination with another antihypertensive drug; may increase gradually up to 3 mg daily.
Store at 68° to 77°F in a tightly closed container and protect from light.
Increased CNS depression (eg, sedation, somnolence). Avoid use.Alpha-2 adrenergic agonists (eg, tizanidine)
Additive hypotension effects may occur. Avoid coadministration. If concurrent use cannot be avoided, closely monitor for signs of hypotension.Antihypertensive agents or other drugs that can reduce blood pressure, decrease heart rate, or increase risk of syncope
Pharmacodynamic effects may be additive (eg, hypotension, syncope).CYP3A4 inducers (eg, rifampin)
Guanfacine plasma concentrations may be reduced, decreasing the efficacy. Monitor the response of the patient. Consider increasing the guanfacine dose within the recommended dose range.CYP3A4/5 strong inhibitors (eg, ketoconazole)
Guanfacine plasma concentrations may be elevated, increasing the pharmacologic effects and risk of adverse reactions. Monitor the response of the patient and adjust the guanfacine dose as needed.Tricyclic antidepressants (eg. amitriptyline)
The antihypertensive effect of guanfacine may be decreased. Carefully monitor BP during coadministration and when stopping tricyclic antidepressants. Adjust the guanfacine dose as needed.Valproic acid
Valproic acid plasma concentrations may be elevated. Consider monitoring valproic acid concentrations and observing the patient for additive CNS effects (eg, sedation). Adjust the valproic acid dose as needed.
None well documented.
Hypotension (10%); syncope (2%); blood pressure increased (2% to less than 5%); AV block, bradycardia, orthostatic hypotension, sinus arrhythmia (less than 2%); tachycardia (postmarketing).
Somnolence (45%); headache (26%); dizziness, fatigue (15%); asthenia (7%); irritability, lethargy (6%); insomnia (4%); agitation, anxiety, depression, emotional lability, interrupted sleep, nightmares, postural dizziness (less than 2%).
Exfoliative dermatitis, rash (postmarketing).
Blurred vision (postmarketing).
Dry mouth (60%); constipation (15%); upper abdominal pain (11%); vomiting (9%); nausea (7%); decreased appetite (5%); diarrhea, stomach discomfort (2% to less than 5%); dyspepsia (less than 2%).
Impotence (7%); enuresis, increased urinary frequency (less than 2%).
ALT increased (less than 2%).
Asthma (less than 2%); dyspnea (postmarketing).
Weight increased (7%); chest pain, pallor (less than 2%); paresthesias (postmarketing).
Monitor heart rate and blood pressure prior to initiation of therapy, following dose increases, and periodically while on therapy for ADHD.
Category B .
Safety and efficacy of guanfacine IR in children younger than 12 yr of age not established. Safety and efficacy of guanfacine ER in children younger than 6 yr of age not established.
It may be necessary to adjust the dose in patients with significant renal impairment.
It may be necessary to adjust the dose in patients with significant hepatic impairment.
Use with caution in patients with severe coronary insufficiency, recent MI, cerebrovascular or cardiovascular disease, history of syncope, or chronic renal or hepatic function impairment.
Bradycardia, hypotension, and syncope may occur in children treated with guanfacine for ADHD.
Occurs in a large percentage of patients.
Do not discontinue therapy without consulting health care provider; drug must be withdrawn gradually to avoid rapid rise in BP (rebound hypertension).
Bradycardia, dizziness, hypotension, lethargy, severe drowsiness.
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