Trade Names:Ifex- Powder for injection 1,000 mg- Powder for injection 3,000 mg
Ifosfamide requires metabolic activation by microsomal liver enzymes to produce biologically active metabolites. Enzymatic oxidation of the chloroethyl side chains and subsequent dealkylation produces the major urinary metabolites, dichloroethyl ifosfamide and dichloroethyl cyclophosphamide. The alkylated metabolites of ifosfamide interact with DNA.
Requires metabolic activation by hydroxylation.
Mean t ½ is approximately 15 h (at doses of 3.8 to 5 g/m 2 ). Mean t ½ is approximately 7 h (at doses of 1.6 to 2.4 g/m 2 ). 70% to 86% is excreted in the urine.
Germ cell testicular cancer.
Soft-tissue, Ewing and osteogenic sarcomas; non-Hodgkin lymphomas; small cell lung, pancreatic, bladder, cervical, and ovarian carcinoma.
Continued use in patients with severely depressed bone marrow function; hypersensitivity to ifosfamide.
IV 1,200 mg/m 2 /day for 5 days, repeating this course every 3 wk. Delay further courses until platelets are least 100,000/mm 3 and WBC at least 4,000/mm 3 .Germ Cell Testicular Cancer, Other RegimensAdults
IV Other regimens use ifosfamide 2,000 mg/m 2 /day on days 1 through 3 (MAID regimen, total dose is 6,000 mg/m 2 over 72 h), or doses as high as 5,000 mg/m 2 continuous infusion for 24 h in combination with other antineoplastics.
Ifosfamide may increase the hypoprothrombinemic effect of warfarin.
None well documented.
Somnolence; confusion; depression; hallucinations. CNS effects more common in patients with renal dysfunction, hypoalbuminemia, or receiving large single doses.
Moderate potential for nausea and vomiting; elevated liver function tests.
Hematuria, dysuria, urinary frequency; hemorrhagic cystitis, which can be prevented with the administration of mesna.
Bone marrow suppression, nadir at 7 to 14 days.
Allergic reactions observed with ifosfamide also can be attributed to mesna.
Renal tubular acidosis; Fanconi-like syndrome.
When given in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents, severe myelosuppression is frequent. It consisted mainly of leukopenia and, to a lesser extent, thrombocytopenia. A WBC count less than 3,000/mm 3 is expected in 50% of patients given ifosfamide alone at 1.2 g/m 2 /day for 5 consecutive days. At this dose level, thrombocytopenia (platelets less than 100,000/mm 3 ) occurred in approximately 20% of patients. At total dosages of 10 to 12 g/m 2 /cycle, 50% of the patients had a WBC count less than 1,000/mm 3 and 8% had platelet counts less than 50,000/mm 3 . Myelosuppression is usually reversible, and treatment can be given every 3 to 4 wk. Close hematologic monitoring is recommended.Neurologic manifestations
Somnolence, confusion, hallucinations, and, in some instances, coma occurred.Urotoxic side effects
Hemorrhagic cystitis frequently associated with ifosfamide. Obtain a urinalysis prior to each dose. Use ifosfamide with a protector, such as mesna, to prevent hemorrhagic cystitis.
Category D .
Excreted in breast milk.
Safety and efficacy not established.
Use with caution. Clinical signs (eg, elevation in BUN or serum creatinine or decrease in Ccr) were usually transient and most likely related to tubular damage.
At doses of 1.2 g/m 2 /day for 5 consecutive days without a protector, microscopic hematuria is expected in approximately 50% of the patients and gross hematuria in approximately 8% of patients. Dose fractionation, vigorous hydration (at least 2 L/day) and a protector (eg, mesna) can significantly reduce hematuria incidence, especially gross hematuria, associated with hemorrhagic cystitis.
Can cause local irritation or phlebitis. Refer to your institution-specific protocol.
Administer cautiously to patients with leukopenia, granulocytopenia, extensive bone marrow metastases, prior therapy with radiation or other cytotoxic agents.
Ifosfamide may interfere with normal wound healing.
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