Generic Name: aminophylline (a min OFF i lin)Brand Names: Phyllocontin, Truphylline
Aminophylline is a bronchodilator. Aminophylline works in several ways: it relaxes muscles in your lungs and chest to allow more air in, decreases the sensitivity of your lungs to allergens and other substances that cause inflammation, and increases the contractions of your diaphragm to draw more air into the lungs.
Aminophylline is used to treat the symptoms of asthma, bronchitis, and emphysema.
Aminophylline may also be used for purposes other than those listed in this medication guide.
Call your doctor right away if you experience nausea, vomiting, insomnia, restlessness, seizures, increased heart rate, or a headache. These could be signs of too much aminophylline in your blood.
Do not start or stop smoking without your doctor's knowledge. Smoking may affect your dosage.
Do not take more of this medication than is prescribed without consulting your doctor. Seek medical attention if you are having increasing difficulty breathing.
Before taking this medication, tell your doctor if you have
a stomach ulcer;
seizures or epilepsy;
high blood pressure, a heart condition, or any type of heart disease;
fluid in your lungs;
a thyroid condition;
liver disease; or
You may not be able to take aminophylline, or you may require a lower dose or special monitoring during treatment if you have any of the conditions listed above.Aminophylline is in the FDA pregnancy category C. This means that it is not known whether aminophylline will harm an unborn baby. Do not take this medication without first talking to your doctor if you are pregnant. Aminophylline passes into breast milk and could affect a nursing baby. Do not take aminophylline without first talking to your doctor if you are breast-feeding a baby. If you are over 60 years of age, you may be more likely to experience side effects from aminophylline. You may require a lower dose of this medication.
Take aminophylline exactly as directed by your doctor. If you do not understand these directions, ask your pharmacist, nurse, or doctor to explain them to you.Take each dose with a full glass of water. You can take aminophylline with food to lessen stomach upset.
Take your doses at the same time every day to keep a constant level of aminophylline in your blood.Do not crush or chew any extended-release formulation of aminophylline. Swallow the medication whole. It is specially formulated to release slowly in your body. If you do not know whether your medication is an extended-release formulation, ask your pharmacist. Shake the liquid forms of this medication well before use. To ensure that you get a correct dose, measure the liquid with a dose-measuring cup or spoon, not a regular tablespoon. If a spoon or cup is not provided with the medication and you do not have one, ask your pharmacist where you can get one. Insert the suppositories rectally as directed.
Do not switch to another brand or a generic form of aminophylline without the approval of your doctor.Store aminophylline at room temperature away from moisture and heat.
See also: Aminophylline dosage in more detail
Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. However, if it is almost time for your next regularly scheduled dose, skip the missed dose and take the next one as directed. Do not take a double dose of this medication.
Symptoms of an aminophylline overdose include nausea, vomiting, headache, insomnia, tremor (shaking hands or twitching,), restlessness, seizures, and irregular heartbeats.
Do not start or stop smoking without the approval of your doctor. Smoking changes the way your body uses aminophylline, and you may need a dose adjustment.
Avoid changing your dose or changing the time of your daily doses.
Do not change the brand, generic form, or formulation (tablet, capsule, liquid) of aminophylline that you are taking without the approval of your doctor. Different brands or formulations may require different dosages.
Avoid eating excessive amounts of grilled or char-broiled foods. Doing so may also change the dosage of aminophylline that you need.Avoid caffeinated beverages such as coffee, tea, and cola. Aminophylline is related chemically to caffeine, and you may experience some side effects if you consume too much caffeine.
an allergic reaction (difficulty breathing; closing of your throat; swelling of your lips, tongue, or face; or hives);
increased or irregular heartbeats; or
severe nausea or vomiting.
Other, less serious side effects may also occur, although they are not common at appropriate doses. Continue to take aminophylline and talk to your doctor if you experience
slight nausea, decreased appetite, or weight loss;
restlessness, tremor, or insomnia; or
headache, lightheadedness, or dizziness.
Side effects other than those listed here may also occur. Talk to your doctor about any side effect that seems unusual or that is especially bothersome. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
Usual Adult Dose for Asthma -- Acute:
IV: (all dosages based on aminophylline-patient not receiving aminophylline or theophylline}Loading dose: 6 mg/kg in 100 to 200 mL of IV fluid intravenously once over 20 to 30 minutes.Maintenance dose (following loading dose):Otherwise healthy nonsmoking adult: 0.7 mg/kg/hr continuous intravenous infusion.Young adult smoker: 0.9 mg/kg/hr continuous intravenous infusion.Patient with cor pulmonale or congestive heart failure: 0.25 mg/kg/hr continuous intravenous infusion.Oral: (Patient not receiving aminophylline or theophylline)Loading dose: 6.3 mg/kg orally once.Maintenance dose (following loading dose):Otherwise healthy nonsmoking adult: 12.5 mg/kg/day in divided doses. Do not exceed 1,125 mg/day.Young adult smoker: 19 mg/kg/day in divided doses.Patient with cor pulmonale or congestive heart failure: 6.25 mg/kg/day in divided doses. Do not exceed 500 mg/day.
Usual Geriatric Dose for Asthma -- Acute:
IV: (all dosages based on aminophylline)Patient not receiving aminophylline or theophylline:Loading dose: 6 mg/kg in 100 to 200 mL of IV fluid intravenously once over 20 to 30 minutes.Maintenance dose (following loading dose): 0.2 to 0.3 mg/kg/hr continuous intravenous infusion.Oral: Patient not receiving aminophylline or theophylline:Loading dose: 6.3 mg/kg orally once.Maintenance dose (following loading dose): 1.7 to 2 mg/kg orally every 8 hours.
Usual Pediatric Dose for Apnea of Prematurity:
<= 4 weeks: (IV or oral, all dosages based on aminophylline):Loading dose: (Patient not receiving aminophylline or theophylline): 5 to 6 mg/kg once - if IV, dilute in IV fluid and give intravenously once over 20 to 30 minutes.Maintenance dose: 3 to 8 mg/kg/day divided every 6 to 12 hours.
Usual Pediatric Dose for Asthma -- Acute:
IV: (all dosages based on aminophylline and patient not receiving aminophylline or theophylline):Loading dose:: 6 mg/kg diluted in IV fluid intravenously once over 20 to 30 minutes.Maintenance dose (following loading dose):6 weeks to 6 months: 0.5 mg/kg/hour continuous intravenous infusion.6 months to 1 year: 0.6 to 0.7 mg/kg/hr continuous intravenous infusion.1 year to 9 years: 1 to 1.2 mg/kg/hr continuous intravenous infusion.9 years to 12 years: 0.9 mg/kg/hr continuous intravenous infusion.>12 years: 0.7 mg/kg/hr continuous intravenous infusion.Oral: (Patient not receiving aminophylline or theophylline):Loading dose: 6.3 mg/kg orally once.Maintenance dose (following loading dose):>=42 < 182 days: 12 to 13.5 mg/kg/day in divided doses.>= 6 < 12 months: 15 to 22.5 mg/kg/day in divided doses.>=1 year to <9 years: 25 to 30 mg/kg/day in divided doses.>=9 years to <12 years: 17 to 20 mg/kg/day in divided doses.>=12 to <16 years: 15 to 17 mg/kg in divided doses.>=16 years: 6.25 to 20 mg/kg orally divided every 6 hours.
Aminophylline interacts with many other drugs. Tell your doctor and pharmacist about all other medications that you are taking, including herbal remedies, vitamins, and other nonprescription items.
The following drugs may increase the levels of aminophylline in your blood, leading to dangerous side effects:
cimetidine (Tagamet, Tagamet HB);
fluoroquinolone antibiotics such as enoxacin (Penetrex), lomefloxacin (Maxaquin), ciprofloxacin (Cipro), norfloxacin (Noroxin), and ofloxacin (Floxin);
clarithromycin (Biaxin) and erythromycin (Ery-Tab, E.E.S., E-Mycin, others);
estrogens (Ogen, Premarin, and many other types);
methotrexate (Folex, Rheumatrex);
mexiletine (Mexitil) and propafenone (Rythmol);
ticlopidine (Ticlid); and
verapamil (Verelan, Calan, Isoptin).
The following drugs may decrease aminophylline levels in your blood, leading to poor asthma control:
phenobarbital (Luminal, Solfoton),
rifampin (Rifadin), and
Drugs other than those listed here may also interact with aminophylline or affect your condition. Talk to your doctor and pharmacist before taking any prescription or over-the-counter medicines.