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Drugs reference index «Ramelteon»

Ramelteon


Ramelteon

Pronunciation: (ram-EL-tee-on)Class: Melatonin receptor agonist

Trade Names:Rozerem- Tablets 8 mg

Pharmacology

Melatonin receptor agonist with high affinity for melatonin MT 1 and MT 2 receptors and selectivity over the MT 3 receptor. Activation of MT 1 and MT 2 receptors is believed to contribute to ramelteon's sleep-promoting properties.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption

Rapidly absorbed; T max 0.75 h after fasted oral administration. Total absorption 84%; absolute bioavailability is 1.8% because of extensive first-pass metabolism.

Distribution

82% protein bound (albumin). Vd is 73.6 L.

Metabolism

Oxidized (primarily by CYP1A2; CYP2C subfamily and CYP3A4 to minor degree) to hydroxyl and carbonyl derivatives, with secondary metabolism to glucuronide conjugates. M-II metabolite is active.

Elimination

The t ½ is 1 to 2.6 h. The t ½ of M-II metabolite is 2 to 5 h. 84% excreted in urine, 4% in feces. Less than 0.1% excreted as parent compound.

Special Populations

Hepatic Function Impairment

4-fold exposure in patients with mild hepatic function impairment. More than 10-fold exposure in patients with moderate hepatic function impairment.

Elderly

AUC is 97% and C max is 86% higher than in younger adults. AUC and C max of M-II metabolite increased 30% and 13%, respectively.

Food Effects

AUC increased 31%, C max reduced 22%, and T max delayed 45 min following administration with high-fat meal.

Indications and Usage

Treatment of insomnia characterized by sleep onset difficulty.

Contraindications

Standard considerations.

Dosage and Administration

Adults

PO 8 mg within 30 min of going to bed.

General Advice

  • Do not administer with or immediately after a high-fat meal.

Storage/Stability

Store at controlled room temperature (59° to 86°F). Protect from moisture and humidity.

Drug Interactions

Alcohol, other CNS depressants

May have additive pharmacologic effects. Avoid concurrent use.

Strong CYP enzyme inducers (eg, rifampin)

Ramelteon plasma concentrations may be reduced, decreasing the pharmacologic effects.

Strong CYP1A2 inhibitors (eg, fluvoxamine)

Ramelteon plasma concentrations may be elevated, increasing the pharmacologic and adverse effects. Avoid coadministration.

Strong CYP2C9 inhibitors (eg, fluconazole)

Ramelteon plasma concentrations may be elevated, increasing the pharmacologic and adverse effects. Coadminister with caution.

Strong CYP3A4 inhibitors (eg, ketoconazole)

Ramelteon plasma concentrations may be elevated, increasing the pharmacologic and adverse effects. Coadminister with caution.

Laboratory Test Interactions

None well documented.

Adverse Reactions

CNS

Headache (7%); somnolence, dizziness (5%); fatigue (4%); exacerbated insomnia (3%); depression (2%).

GI

Nausea (3%); diarrhea, dysgeusia (2%).

Lab Tests

Decreased blood cortisol (1%).

Musculoskeletal

Arthralgia, myalgia (2%).

Respiratory

Upper respiratory tract infection (3%); influenza (1%).

Precautions

Monitor

Consider assessment of prolactin and testosterone levels, as appropriate, for patients presenting with unexplained amenorrhea, galactorrhea, decreased libido, or infertility.

Pregnancy

Category C .

Lactation

Undetermined.

Children

Safety and efficacy not established.

Hepatic Function

Use with caution in patients with moderate hepatic function impairment; do not use in patients with severe hepatic function impairment.

Hazardous Tasks

Patients should avoid engaging in hazardous activities requiring concentration after taking ramelteon.

Adolescents and children

Ramelteon has been associated with an effect on reproductive hormones in adults (eg, decreased testosterone and increased prolactin levels). It is not known what effect chronic or chronic intermittent use may have on the reproductive axis in adolescents and children.

COPD

Not recommended for patients with severe COPD.

Depression

Use with caution; worsening of depression, including suicidal ideation, has been reported in depressed patients receiving hypnotics.

Physical and/or psychiatric disorders

Sleep disturbances may be the presenting manifestation of a physical and/or psychiatric disorder. Initiate treatment only after careful evaluation. Failure of insomnia to remit after a reasonable period of treatment, worsening of insomnia, or emergence of new cognitive or behavioral abnormalities may indicate the presence of a primary psychiatric or medical illness that should be evaluated.

Sleep apnea

Not recommended for patients with severe sleep apnea.

Overdosage

Symptoms

No cases reported.

Patient Information

  • Advise patient to read the patient information leaflet before starting therapy and with each refill.
  • Review lifestyle changes that may improve sleep (eg, quiet and dark environment, avoidance of caffeine and nicotine, warm water bath, relaxation techniques).
  • Advise patient to take within 30 min of going to bed and to confine activities to those necessary to prepare for bed.
  • Advise patient to take on an empty stomach but to take with food if stomach upset occurs. Caution patient not to take with or immediately after a high-fat meal because medication may not work as well.
  • Advise patient to avoid alcoholic beverages and other depressants while taking this medication.
  • Instruct patient to contact health care provider if symptoms do not appear to be getting better, are getting worse, or if bothersome side effects (eg, daytime drowsiness, dizziness, incoordination, memory problems, changes in thinking or behavior) occur. Caution patient not to increase the dose if symptoms do not appear to be improving.
  • Advise patient to notify health care provider if experiencing any of the following: menstrual changes; unexplained production of breast milk; decreased libido; problems with infertility.
  • Advise patient to avoid engaging in hazardous activities (eg, driving) after taking ramelteon.

Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health.

  • Ramelteon MedFacts Consumer Leaflet (Wolters Kluwer)
  • Ramelteon Detailed Consumer Information (PDR)
  • ramelteon Advanced Consumer (Micromedex) - Includes Dosage Information
  • Rozerem Prescribing Information (FDA)
  • Rozerem Consumer Overview

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