Trade Names:Botox- Powder for injection 100 units vacuum-dried Clostridium botulinum toxin type A neurotoxin complex
Trade Names:Botox Cosmetic- Powder for injection 100 units vacuum-dried C. botulinum toxin type A neurotoxin complex
Trade Names:Dysport- Powder for injection 300 units freeze-dried abobotulinum toxin A- Powder for injection 500 units freeze-dried abobotulinum toxin A
Blocks neuromuscular transmission by binding to acceptor sites on motor or sympathetic nerve terminals, entering the nerve terminals, and inhibiting the release of acetylcholine.
Produces temporary chemical denervation of sweat glands and local reduction in sweating when injected intradermally.
Not expected to be present in peripheral blood at measurable levels following IM or intradermal injection at recommended doses.
Treatment of cervical dystonia in adults to decrease severity of abnormal head position and neck pain associated with cervical dystonia ( Botox and Dysport ); treatment of strabismus and blepharospasm associated with dystonia, including benign essential blepharospasm or VII nerve disorder in patients 12 yr of age and older ( Botox ); treatment of severe primary axillary hyperhidrosis inadequately managed with topical agents ( Botox ); for temporary improvement in appearance of moderate to severe glabellar lines associated with corrugator or procerus muscle activity in patients 65 yr of age or younger ( Botox Cosmetic and Dysport ).
Infection at the proposed injection site(s); hypersensitivity to any ingredient in the formulations.
Intradermally Inject 50 units (2 mL of reconstituted solution) intradermally into defined hyperhidrotic area in 0.1 to 0.2 mL aliquots to each axilla evenly distributed in multiple sites (10 to 15) approximately 1 to 2 cm apart. Administer repeat injections when clinical effect of previous injection diminishes.Blepharospasm Adults and children 12 yr of age and older
IM Initially, inject 1.25 to 2.5 units (0.05 to 0.1 mL volume at each site) into the medial and lateral pretarsal orbicularis oculi of the upper lid and into the lateral pretarsal orbicularis oculi of the lower lid.Cervical Dystonia Adults and children 16 yr of age and older
IM In patients with known history of tolerance, tailor dosing in initial and sequential treatments to the individual patient based on patient's head and neck position, localized pain, muscle hypertrophy, patient response, and adverse reaction history. In patients without prior use, use lower dose than in patients with known history of tolerance, adjusting subsequent doses based on individual response.Glabellar Lines ( Botox Cosmetic only) Adults (65 yr of age or younger)
IM Total treatment dose is 20 units in 0.5 mL at intervals no more frequently than every 3 mo (duration of activity of botulinum toxin type A is approximately 3 to 4 mo).Strabismus Adults and children 12 yr of age and older
IM Inject between 0.05 to 0.15 mL per muscle into extraocular muscles utilizing electrical activity recorded from tip of injection needle as guide to placement within target muscle.DysportCervical Dystonia Adults
IM 500 units initially as a divided dose among affected muscles. Make dosage adjustments in 250 unit steps according to patient's response, with retreatment every 12 wk or longer. Usual dosage 250 to 1,000 units every 12 wk or longer.Glabellar Lines Adults
IM 50 units in 5 equal aliquots of 10 unit each. Administer no more frequently than every 3 mo.
Store unopened vials in refrigerator (36° to 46°F) for up to 24 mo. Reconstituted solution may be stored for up to 4 h if refrigerated. Do not freeze reconstituted solution.
The effects of botulinum toxin may be potentiated.Botulinum neurotoxin
Administration of a different botulinum neurotoxin at the same time or within several months of each other may exacerbate excessive neuromuscular weakness.
None well documented.
Hypertension (1%); arrhythmia; MI; syncope (postmarketing).
Anxiety, asthenia, dizziness, drowsiness, hypertonia (2% to 10%); headache (13%); dizziness, paresthesia (1%); malaise, vertigo with nystagmus (postmarketing).
Pruritus, sweating (3% to 10%); erythema (2%); skin tightness (1%); skin rash (including erythema multiforme, psoriasiform eruption, urticaria) (postmarketing).
Eye dryness, superficial punctuate keratitis (6%); diplopia, pharyngitis, rhinitis (2% to 10%); blepharoptosis (3%); blurred vision, decreased hearing, ear noise, glaucoma, retinal vein occlusion (postmarketing).
Dysphagia (19%); nausea, oral dryness (2% to 10%); dyspepsia, tooth disorder (1%); abdominal pain, diarrhea, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting (postmarketing).
Hemorrhage (3% to 10%); soreness (2% to 10%); bruising; tenderness; weakness; erythema, facial pain (less than 3%); pain and edema at injection site (2%); localized numbness (postmarketing).
Neck pain (11%); back pain (2% to 10%); muscle weakness (2%); chest discomfort, myalgia, myasthenia gravis (postmarketing).
Upper respiratory infection (12%); cough, dyspnea (2% to 10%); pneumonia; infection (4%); bronchitis, sinusitis (2%).
Ptosis (21%); fever, infection, numbness, speech disorder, stiffness (2% to 10%); anaphylaxis; transient ptosis (5%); flu syndrome (2%); allergic reaction, brachial plexopathy, facial paralysis, fever (postmarketing).
Category C .
Botox Cosmetic and Dysport are not recommended for use in children.Blepharospasm and strabismus
Safety and efficacy in children younger than 12 yr of age not established.Cervical dystonia
Safety and efficacy in children younger than 16 yr of age not established.Hyperhidrosis
Safety and efficacy in children younger than 18 yr of age not established.
Use with caution, reflecting higher frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function and comorbidity.
Serious and/or immediate hypersensitivity reactions have occurred.
Because this product contains albumin, a derivative of human blood, it carries a remote risk of viral disease transmission.
Use with caution in patients who have bleeding disorders or are taking anticoagulants.
Rare reports of CV adverse reactions, including arrhythmia and MI, some with fatal outcomes, have occurred.
Use with caution in patients who have an inflammatory skin problem at injection site. Marked facial asymmetry, ptosis, dermatochalasis, deep dermal scarring, thick sebaceous skin, or when atrophy is present in the target muscles.
Risk may be increased in patients requiring injections into the levator scapulae, patients with smaller neck muscle mass, and patients requiring bilateral injections into sternocleidomastoid muscle.
Treatment with botulinum toxin type A may cause formation of neutralizing antibodies that may reduce the efficacy of subsequent botulinum toxin type A treatments.
Use with caution in patients with peripheral motor neuropathic disease (eg, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) or neuromuscular junctional disorders (eg, myasthenia gravis) because of increased risk of systemic effects, including dysphagia and respiratory compromise.
Retrobulbar hemorrhage has occurred from needle penetration into the orbit. Ocular penetrations also have occurred. Spatial disorientation, double vision, or past pointing may occur. Covering affected eye may alleviate these symptoms.
Reduced blinking from injection of the orbicularis muscle can lead to corneal exposure, persistent epithelial defect, and corneal ulceration.
Evaluate patient for secondary causes of hyperhidrosis (eg, hyperthyroidism) before initiating therapy.
Muscle paralysis, systemic weakness.
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