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Drugs reference index «Cefprozil»

Cefprozil

Pronunciation: (SEFF-pro-zill)Class: Antibiotic, Cephalosporin

Trade Names:Cefzil- Tablets 250 mg (as anhydrous)- Tablets 500 mg (as anhydrous)- Powder for oral suspension 125 mg per 5 mL (as anhydrous). Contains sucrose, aspartame, 28 mg per 5 mL phenylalanine- Powder for oral suspension 250 mg per 5 mL (as anhydrous). Contains sucrose, aspartame, 28 mg per 5 mL phenylalanine

RAN-Cefprozil (Canada)

Pharmacology

Inhibits mucopeptide synthesis in bacterial cell wall.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption

Cefprozil is about 95% absorbed. Food increased T max 0.25 to 0.75 h. T max is about 1.5 h. C max is 18.3 mcg/mL.

Distribution

Vd is about 0.23 L/kg. Cefprozil is about 36% protein bound.

Elimination

Plasma t ½ is 1.3 h. Total body Cl is about 3 mL/min/kg. Renal Cl is about 2.3 mL/min/kg. The 8-h urinary excretion accounted for 54% to 62% of the dose.

Special Populations

Renal Function Impairment

The t ½ may be up to 5.2 h.

Hepatic Function Impairment

The t ½ increases to about 2 h.

Elderly

AUC is about 35% to 60% higher.

Indications and Usage

Treatment of infections of skin and skin structures, bronchitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, and otitis media caused by susceptible strains of specific microorganisms.

Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to cephalosporins.

Dosage and Administration

Adults

PO 250 to 500 mg every 12 to 24 h.

Children 6 mo to 12 yr of age

PO 7.5 to 15 mg/kg every 12 h.

General Advice

May be given without regard to meals. Administer with food or milk if GI upset occurs. Food slows but does not decrease absorption.

Storage/Stability

Oral suspension

After reconstitution, oral suspension must be refrigerated. Solution may be stored for up to 14 days in refrigerator. Do not freeze. Shake well before use.

Tablets

Store tablets at room temperature.

Drug Interactions

Probenecid

Inhibition of renal excretion of cefprozil.

Laboratory Test Interactions

May cause false-positive urine glucose test results with Benedict solution, Fehling solution, or Clinitest tablets but not with enzyme-based tests (eg, Clinistix , Tes-tape ); false-positive test results for proteinuria with acid and denaturization-precipitation tests; false-positive direct Coombs test result in certain patients (eg, those with azotemia); false elevations in urinary 17-ketosteroid values.

Adverse Reactions

CNS

Headache, dizziness; fatigue; paresthesia; confusion; nervousness; sleeplessness; insomnia.

GI

Nausea; vomiting; diarrhea; abdominal pain or cramps; flatulence; colitis, including pseudomembranous colitis.

Genitourinary

Genital pruritus; vaginitis; renal function impairment.

Hematologic

Eosinophilia; neutropenia; lymphocytosis; leukocytosis; thrombocytopenia; decreased platelet function; anemia; aplastic anemia; hemorrhage.

Hepatic

Hepatic function impairment; cholestatic jaundice; abnormal LFT results.

Miscellaneous

Hypersensitivity, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome, erythema multiforme, toxic epidermal necrolysis; candidal overgrowth; serum sickness–like reactions (eg, skin rashes, polyarthritis, arthralgia, fever).

Precautions

Monitor

Response to therapy

Monitor patient's response to therapy. Notify health care provider if infection does not appear to improve or worsens.

Adverse reactions

Monitor patient for GI, DERM, and general body adverse reactions, and signs of superinfection. Inform health care provider if noted and significant. Immediately report severe diarrhea, diarrhea containing blood or pus, or severe abdominal cramping.

Pregnancy

Category B .

Lactation

Excreted in breast milk.

Children

Safety and efficacy in children younger than 6 mo of age not established.

Hypersensitivity

Reactions range from mild to life-threatening. Administer drug with caution to penicillin-sensitive patients because of possible cross-reactivity.

Renal Function

Use drug with caution in patients with renal function impairment. Dosage adjustment based on renal function may be required.

Superinfection

May result in bacterial or fungal overgrowth of nonsusceptible microorganisms.

Pseudomembranous colitis

Consider in patients in whom diarrhea develops.

Overdosage

Symptoms

Seizures.

Patient Information

  • Instruct patient to complete full course of therapy.
  • Remind patient to check body temperature daily. If fever persists for more than a few days or if high fever (higher than 102°F) or shaking chills are noted, notify health care provider immediately.
  • Advise patient to maintain normal fluid intake while using this medication.
  • Remind diabetic patient to use enzyme-based tests (eg, Clinistix , Testape ) for monitoring urine glucose because drug may give false results with other tests.
  • Advise patient to report these symptoms to health care provider: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, skin rash, hives, muscle or joint pain.
  • Instruct patient to report signs of superinfection: black “furry” tongue, white patches in mouth, foul-smelling stools, vaginal itching or discharge.
  • Warn patient that diarrhea that contains blood or pus may be a sign of serious disorders. Tell patient to seek medical care and not to treat at home.
  • Instruct patient to seek emergency care immediately if he or she experiences wheezing or difficulty breathing.
  • Caution patient to avoid alcohol intake while taking medication.

Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health.

  • Cefprozil Prescribing Information (FDA)
  • Cefprozil MedFacts Consumer Leaflet (Wolters Kluwer)
  • Cefprozil Detailed Consumer Information (PDR)
  • cefprozil Advanced Consumer (Micromedex) - Includes Dosage Information
  • Cefzil Prescribing Information (FDA)
  • Cefzil Consumer Overview

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