Trade Names:Chloroprocaine- Injection 2%- Injection 3%
Trade Names:Nesacaine- Injection 1%- Injection 2%
Trade Names:Nesacaine-MPF- Injection 2%- Injection 3%
Stabilizes neuronal membranes by inhibiting the ionic fluxes required for the initiation and conduction of impulses, thereby effecting local anesthetic action.
Crosses the placenta by passive diffusion; distributed to some extent to all body systems, with high concentrations found in highly perfused organs, such as the liver, lungs, heart, and brain.
Rapidly metabolized in plasma by hydrolysis of the ester linkage by pseudocholinesterase.
Excreted by the kidney. The plasma half-life in adults is approximately 21 sec for men and 25 sec for women.
6 to 12 min.
Up to 60 min.
Pharmacokinetic parameters can be significantly altered.Hepatic Function Impairment
Pharmacokinetic parameters can be significantly altered.Elderly
Pharmacokinetic parameters can be significantly altered.Children
The plasma half-life in neonates is approximately 43 sec.
Production of local anesthesia by infiltration and peripheral nerve block.
Hypersensitivity to drugs of the PABA ester group.
IV 15 to 25 mL of chloroprocaine 2% or 3% solution without preservatives. Repeated doses may be given at 40- to 60-min intervals.Infiltration and Peripheral Nerve BlockAdults Brachial plexus
IV 30 to 40 mL (600 to 800 mg) as chloroprocaine 2% solution with or without preservatives.Digital
IV 3 to 4 mL (30 to 40 mg) as chloroprocaine 1% solution with or without preservatives (without epinephrine).Infraorbital
IV 0.5 to 1 mL (10 to 20 mg) as chloroprocaine 2% solution with or without preservative.Mandibular
IV 2 to 3 mL (40 to 60 mg) as chloroprocaine 2% solution with or without preservatives.Paracervical
IV 3 mL per each of 4 sites as chloroprocaine 1% solution without preservatives; total dose, up to 120 mg.Pudendal
IV 10 mL, 1 each side as chloroprocaine 2% solution with or without preservative; total dose, 400 mg.Children Infiltration
IV Use concentrations of 0.5% to 1%.Nerve block
IV Use concentrations of 1% to 1.5%.Lumbar Epidural BlockAdults
IV 2 to 2.5 mL per segment of chloroprocaine 2% or 3% solution without preservatives. The usual total volume is from 15 to 25 mL. Repeated doses 2 to 6 mL less than the original dose may be given at 40- to 50-min intervals.Elderly
Reduce dosage for elderly.Hepatic Function Impairment
Reduce dosage for patients with liver disease.Special Risk Patients
Reduce dosage in cardiac, debilitated, and acutely ill patients.
Store at 68° to 77°F. Keep from freezing and protect from light. Discard unused chloroprocaine without preservatives remaining in vial.
Do not use vasopressors in the presence of ergot-type oxytocic drugs because severe, persistent hypertension or cerebrovascular accidents may occur.Sulfonamides
The PABA metabolite of chloroprocaine inhibits the action of sulfonamides; do not coadminister.
None well documented.
Bradycardia, cardiac arrest, hypotension, myocardium depression, ventricular arrhythmias.
Anxiety, CNS excitement or depression, convulsions, dizziness, drowsiness, headache, restlessness, tremors, unconsciousness.
Blurred vision, tinnitus.
Allergic reactions (characterized by urticaria, pruritus, erythema, angioneurotic edema, tachycardia, sneezing, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, syncope, excessive sweating, elevated temperature, and possibly, anaphylactoid-type symptomatology), backache, respiratory arrest.
Careful and constant monitoring of cardiovascular and respiratory vital signs and the patient's state of consciousness should be accomplished after each local anesthetic injection.
Category C .
Safety and effectiveness not established in children younger than 3 yr of age.
Exercise caution in dose selection, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
Use with caution in areas of the body supplied by end arteries or having compromised blood supply, and in patients with neurological disease, spinal deformities, septicemia, severe hypertension, impaired CV function, hypotension, heart block, or hepatic disease.
Exercise caution regarding toxic equivalence when mixtures of local anesthetics are employed.
When using for retrobulbar block, do not rely upon lack of corneal sensation to determine wether or not the patient is ready for surgery.
May exhibit exaggerated vasoconstrictor response, and ischemic injury or necrosis may result.
None well documented.
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