Trade Names:Dopamine Hydrochloride- Injection 40 mg/mL- Injection 80 mg/mL- Injection 160 mg/mL
Trade Names:Dopamine Hydrochloride in Dextrose 5%- Injection 200 mg per 250 mL (0.8 mg/mL)- Injection 400 mg per 500 mL (0.8 mg/mL)- Injection 400 mg per 250 mL (1.6 mg/mL)- Injection 800 mg per 500 mL (1.6 mg/mL)- Injection 800 mg per 250 mL (3.2 mg/mL)
Stimulates beta-1 receptors in the heart, causing more complete and forceful contractions (inotropy). Also acts on alpha receptors (dose dependent) and has dopaminergic effects.
Widely distributed; does not cross the blood-brain barrier to a significant extent.
Metabolized in the liver, kidney, and plasma by MAO and catechol-O-methyltransferase to inactive compounds. Approximately 25% of dose is taken up in the adrenergic nerve terminals where it is hydrolyzed to norepinephrine.
Half-life approximately 2 min.
Approximately 80% excreted in the urine within 24 h as metabolites; a very small amount excreted unchanged.
Within 5 min.
Less than 10 min.
Correction of hemodynamic imbalances present in shock syndrome after MI, trauma, endotoxic septicemia, open heart surgery, and renal failure or chronic cardiac decompensation (eg, CHF).
Calcium channel blocker or beta-blocker overdose; drug-induced hypovolemic shock; treatment of RDS in infants; COPD; CHF.
Pheochromocytoma; uncorrected tachyarrhythmias; ventricular fibrillation; allergy to corn/corn products (dextrose solutions).
IV Initial dose of 2 to 5 mcg/kg/min with incremental changes of 5 to 10 mcg/kg/min gradually until adequate response is noted. Most patients are maintained at less than 20 mcg/kg/min. If dosage exceeds 50 mcg/kg/min, assess renal function frequently.
Store at 68° to 77°F. Avoid excessive heat. Protect from freezing. Dilute just prior to administration. Solution is stable for 24 h after dilution.
May antagonize peripheral vasoconstriction caused by high-dose dopamine.Beta-blockers (eg, metoprolol, propranolol)
May antagonize the cardiac effects of dopamine.Cyclopropane, halogenated hydrocarbons
May sensitize the myocardium to the action of dopamine. Use with extreme caution.Diuretics
May produce an additive or potentiating effect on urine flow.Furazolidone, methyldopa, reserpine
Hypertension may result.Guanethidine
Antihypertensive effects of guanethidine may be negated.Haloperidol, phenothiazines (eg, chlorpromazine)
May suppress the dopaminergic renal and mesenteric vasodilation produced with low-dose dopamine infusion.MAOIs
May greatly increase pressor response from dopamine.Oxytocic agents, vasoconstrictors (eg, ergonovine), vasopressors
Severe hypertension may occur.Phenytoin
Severe hypotension and bradycardia may result after coadministration with dopamine.Tricyclic antidepressants
May decrease pressor response from dopamine.
Infusion of dopamine suppresses pituitary secretion of TSH, growth hormone, and prolactin.
Anginal pain, bradycardia, cardiac conduction abnormalities, ectopic beats, hypertension, hypotension, palpitation, tachycardia, vasoconstriction, ventricular arrhythmia, widened QRS complex.
Azotemia, dyspnea, gangrene of the extremities, peripheral cyanosis, piloerection.
WarningsAntidote for peripheral ischemia
To prevent sloughing and necrosis, infiltrate the area as soon as possible with 10 to 15 mL of sodium chloride 0.9% injection containing phentolamine 5 to 10 mg (0.1 to 0.2 mg/kg; max, 10 mg/dose for children).
Monitor vital signs and ECG closely throughout therapy. Monitor I&O regularly; note decreases in urine output. Monitor CVP or pulmonary wedge pressure if possible during infusion. Note significant changes in vital signs, ECG changes, deterioration of peripheral pulses, and/or cold, mottled extremities. Closely monitor urine flow, cardiac output, and BP during dopamine infusion. Acidosis, hypercapnia, hypoxia, and hypovolemia must be identified and corrected prior to or concurrent with dopamine administration. Closely monitor patients with a history of occlusive vascular disease (eg, atherosclerosis, arterial embolism, Raynaud disease, cold injury, diabetic endarteritis, Buerger disease) for any change in color or skin temperature of the extremities. Monitoring CVP or left ventricular filling pressure may be useful in detecting and treating hypovolemia.
Category C .
Safety and efficacy not established for dopamine injection; dopamine in dextrose injection has been used in patients from birth onwards.
Use with caution, usually starting at the low end of the dosage range, because of the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and concomitant diseases or other drug therapy.
Use caution in sulfite-sensitive patients; some commercial preparations contain sodium bisulfite.
When discontinuing the dopamine infusion, it may be necessary to gradually decrease the dose while expanding blood volume. Sudden cessation may result in marked hypotension.
Use solutions containing dextrose with caution in patients with known and subclinical or overt diabetes.
If hypotension occurs at low infusion rates, rapidly increase the infusion rate until an adequate BP is obtained. If hypotension persists, discontinue dopamine and administer a more potent vasoconstrictor (eg, norepinephrine).
Avoid by infusing into large vein and monitoring infusion carefully.
Excess administration of potassium-free solutions may result in hypokalemia.
Should be avoided. Prior to starting therapy, correct hypovolemia.
Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health.