Medical Dictionary Definitions A-Z List
Medical Dictionary Definitions A - Z - «C»:
Cholecystitis: Inflammation of the gallbladder, a
complication of gallstones which are formed by cholesterol and pigment (bilirubin) in
bile. (Bile is produced in the liver and stored in the gallbladder). Cholecystitis is
frequently associated with infection in the gallbladder. Risk factors for chol...
Cholecystogram, oral: See: Oral cholecystogram....
Cholecystokinin: Abbreviated CCK. A polypeptide hormone that stimulates the contraction of the gallbladder with release of bile and the secretion of pancreatic enzymes into the small intestine. CCK is secreted by cells lining the upper intestine and by the hypothalamus. Hypothalamic cholecystokinin ...
Cholelithiasis: 1. The presence of stones in the gallbladder or common bile duct.
2. The process of formation of such stones. From the Greek roots chole, bile + lithos, stone....
Cholera: A devastating and sometimes lethal disease with intense vomiting and profuse watery diarrhea leading to dehydration which, unless immediately treated, may be fatal.
Cholera was discovered in 1883 to be due to infection with Vibrio cholerae, a comma-shaped bacteria. The discovery was
Cholera genome: The genome of the bacterium called Vibrio cholerae that causes cholera. This genome contains over 4 million bases in its DNA including the sequences for nearly 4,000 genes.
The V. cholerae genome is remarkable in that it is arranged in two circular chromosomes. The larger of the two ...
Cholescintigraphy: A diagnostic test in which a
two-dimensional picture of a radiation source in the
biliary system is obtained by the use of radioisotopes.
Cholescintigraphy is done by nuclear medicine physicians to
examine the biliary system and diagnose obstruction of the
bile ducts (for e...
Cholestasis with peripheral pulmonary stenosis
Cholestasis with peripheral pulmonary
stenosis: Also known as arteriohepatic dysplasia or
Alagille syndrome, this ia a genetic disorder characterized
by yellowing of the skin (jaundice) in the newborn period,
liver disease with cholestasis, peripheral pulmonic
stenosis and unusual face. Childr...
Cholesterol: The most common
type of steroid in the body,
cholesterol has gotten something of a bad name. However,
cholesterol is a critically important molecule.
It is essential to
the formation of:
Bile acids (which aid in the digestion of fats)
Cholesterol ester transfer protein
Cholesterol ester transfer protein: A protein that helps regulate the size of cholesterol particles and influence the process of atherogenesis (the formation of plaques in arteries). Abbreviated CETP. The CETP gene is in chromosome band 16q21. A number of mutations are known in the CETP gene. Some r...
Cholesterol guidelines: The guidelines on cholesterol for adults.
Controlling blood cholesterol levels
may decrease the risk of heart attack and stroke. The National Institute of
Health, the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology
publish guidelines to help physicians a...
Cholesterol lowering with fibrate
Cholesterol lowering with fibrate: The fibrates are cholesterol-lowering drugs that are primarily effective in lowering triglycerides and, to a lesser extent, in increasing HDL-cholesterol levels.
Gemfibrozil (brand name: LOPID), the fibrate most widely used in the United States, can be very effec...
Cholesterol lowering with niacin
Cholesterol lowering with niacin: Niacin or nicotinic
acid, one of the water-soluble B
vitamins, improves all lipoproteins when given in doses well above
the vitamin requirement. Nicotinic acid lowers the total cholesterol,
"bad" LDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, while raising the
Cholesterol, "good" : High-density
lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol....
Cholesterol, HDL: See HDL cholesterol....