Medical Dictionary Definitions A-Z List
Medical Dictionary Definitions A - Z - «C»:
Cloaca: A common passageway for feces, urine and reproduction.
At one point in the development of the human embryo, there is a cloaca. It is the far end of a structure called the hindgut. This structure then divides to form a rectum, a bladder, and genitalia.
The presence of a cloaca is normal in m...
Cloacal exstrophy: A birth defect involving the pelvic area that is termed a malformation sequence and involves the cloaca.
A cloaca is a common passageway for feces, urine and reproduction. During human embryogenesis (development), there is for a time a cloaca. The far end of a structure called th...
Clone: Literally a fragment,
the word in modern medical science has come to mean a replica, for example, of a
group of bacteria or a macromolecule such as
DNA. Clone also refers to an individual developed from a single somatic (non-germ)
from a parent, representing an exact replica of that...
Clone bank: Synonym for Genomic library. ...
Clones, recombinant: Clones containing recombinant DNA
Clonic seizure: A seizure in which there are generalized clonic contractions with the entire body jerking, but without a preceding tonic phase....
Cloning: The process of making a clone, a genetically identical copy. Cloning can refer to the technique of producing a genetically identical copy of an organism by replacing the nucleus of an unfertilized ovum with the nucleus of a body cell from the organism.
The first adult mammal cloned was Dol...
Cloning vector: A DNA molecule originating from a virus, a plasmid (see below) or the cell of a higher organism into which another DNA fragment can be integrated without loss of the vector's (carrier's) capacity for self-replication.
Cloning vectors are used to introduce foreign DNA into host cells,...
Cloning, cell: The process of producing a group of
cells (clones), all genetically identical, from a single ancestor. ...
Cloning, DNA: The use of DNA manipulation procedures to
produce multiple copies of a single gene or segment of DNA....
Cloning, therapeutic: See: Therapeutic cloning....
Clonote: The first cell produced by the combination of a nucleus and an enucleated ovum that launches the process of somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). As opposed to the zygote, the first cell resulting from fertilization.
The term "clonote" was coined to connote the fundamental difference betwee...
Clostridium: A group of anaerobic bacteria (bacteria that thrive in the absence of oxygen). There are 100+ species of Clostridium. They include, for examples, Clostridium difficile, Clostridium perfringens (also called Clostridium welchii), and Clostridium botulinum.
Clostridium difficile is one
Clostridium botulinum: A group of rod-shaped bacteria commonly found in the soil that grow best under low oxygen conditions. The bacteria form heat-resistant spores which allow them to survive in a dormant state until exposed to conditions that can support their growth. Clostridium botulinum produc...
Clostridium difficile: A bacterium that is one of the most common causes of infection of the large bowel (colon). In technical terms, Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is an obligate anaerobic or microaerophilic, gram-positive, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacillus.
C. difficile is now recognized as...