Medical Dictionary Definitions A-Z List
Medical Dictionary Definitions A - Z - «N»:
NEP: 1. Neutral endopeptidase. See: Metallomembrane endopeptidase.
Nephrectomy: The surgical removal of a kidney.
A nephrectomy can be radical, simple, or partial. The kidney, the adrenal gland, nearby lymph nodes, and other surrounding
tissue are removed in a radical nephrectomy. Simple nephrectomy is the removal of just the affected kidney. Partial nephrectomy ...
Nephritis: Inflammation of the kidney. Nephritis can be acute or chronic.
Acute nephritis is most commonly caused by hypersensitivity (allergy) to drug therapy. Recognition of a drug-related cause is important because severe renal damage is often preventable or reversible. The most frequent drugs i...
Nephritis, acute: Sudden inflammation of the kidney.
Diagnosis is by finding blood or protein in the urine. There is often hypertension and edema (swelling)....
Nephritis, infective tubulointerstitial
Nephritis, infective tubulointerstitial:
Inflammation of the kidney due to infection. Symptoms
include nausea, pain in the kidney area, fever, and chills.
Early diagnosis is essential to save the kidneys. Treatment
is by antibiotics or antiviral medications....
Nephritis, interstitial: Nephritis due to
disorders of the connective tissue within the kidney,
severe allergic reactions, exposure to toxic substances,
transplant rejection, urinary blockage, or other factors.
Symptoms include fever, pain in the kidney area, blood or
protein in the urine, and ...
Nephritis, lipomatous: A disorder in which the
nephrons of the kidney are gradually replaced with fatty
tissues, preventing proper filtration of wastes and
eventually resulting in kidney failure. Treatment is by
Nephro-: Prefix referring to the kidney as, for example, in nephrotoxic. From the Greek nephros meaning kidney....
Nephroblastoma: See: Wilms tumor....
Nephroblastomatosis: The presence of multiple embryonic rests of tissue within the kidney. These nephrogenic rests usually are benign but they may give rise to Wilms tumor. Chemotherapy has been advocated if the rests are growing or if a child becomes symptomatic to decrease the risk of development ...
Nephrocalcinosis: The deposition of calcium (in the form of calcium phosphate and calcium oxalate) in the substance of the kidney, a process that can impair the function of the kidney function.
Nephrocalcinosis is caused by a number of conditions including: the excess excretion of calcium by the k...
Nephrogenic rest: A fragment of embryonic tissue in the kidney retained after the period of embryonic development. Nephrogenic rests are precursors (forerunners) of Wilms tumor. Two distinct categories of nephrogenic rest are recognized on the basis of their topographical relation to the renal lobe....
Nephrolith: A kidney stone....
Nephrolithiasis: The process
of forming a kidney
stone, a stone in the kidney (or lower down in the urinary tract).
Kidney stones are a common cause of blood in the urine and pain in
the abdomen, flank, or groin. Kidney stones occur in 1 in 20 people
at some time in their life.
Nephrolithotripsy, percutaneous (PNL)
Nephrolithotripsy, percutaneous (PNL): A technique for removing large and/or dense stones and staghorn stones.
PNL is done via a port created by puncturing the kidney through the skin and enlarging the access port to 1 cm (about 3/8 inch) in diameter. There is no surgical incision.
PNL is done und...