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Definition of «Neuron»

Neuron: A nerve cell that sends and receives electrical signals over long distances within the body. A neuron may send electrical output signals to muscle neurons (called motor neurons or motoneurons) and to other neurons. A neuron may receive electrical input signals from sensory cells (called sensory neurons) and from other neurons. A neuron that simply signals another neuron is called an interneuron.

The word "neuron" comes straight from the Greek meaning "a sinew, tendon, thong, string, or wire." The term was introduced to designate a nerve cell by the English physiologist Sir Charles Scott Sherrington (1857-1952). Sherrington was an influential figure in the development of neurophysiology (the intersection between neurology and physiology), clinical neurology and neurosurgery ("brain surgery"). He worked at Oxford University. Aside from the "neuron," he also coined other useful terms including "synapse." Sherrington shared the Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology in 1932 with Lord Edgar Douglas Adrian of Cambridge University for "their discoveries regarding the functions of neurons."

For More Information «Neuron»

  • neuron: Definition from Answers.com

    n. Any of the impulse-conducting cells that constitute the brain, spinal column, and nerves, consisting of a nucleated cell body with one or more dendrites and a ...

  • Neuron

    X Volume 71, Issue 2. On the cover: Entrainment of prefrontal and hippocampal networks in oscillatory rhythms ensures information processing in mnemonic and executive tasks.

  • NEURON | for empirically-based simulations of neurons and ...

    This is the home page of the NEURON simulation environment, which is used in classrooms and laboratories around the world for building and using computational models of ...

  • Neuron - New World Encyclopedia

    Drawing of neurons in the pigeon cerebellum by Santiago Ramón y Cajal, the Spanish anatomist who first recognized the neuron’s role as the primary functional unit of ...

  • Neuron: Facts, Discussion Forum, and Encyclopedia Article

    A neuron is an electrically. excitable cell. that processes and transmits information by electrical and chemical signaling. Chemical signaling occurs via synapse

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